Here’s a quick timeline of the various hospitals grouped together as New Orleans Charity Hospital condensed from John Salvaggio’s History of Charity Hospital (available in print in the Isché Library) with additions since its 1992 publication.
The first Charity Hospital was the provisional Ursuline Convent at Bienville and Chartres in 1736 and was called L’Hospital des Pauvres de la Charité or Hospital of St. John.
The second (built 1743 and destroyed 1779 by hurricane) and third, San Carlos Hospital or Hospital of St. Charles, (built 1785 and destroyed 1809 by fire) hospitals were built near Basin St.
The fourth hospital opened in 1815 at State House Square (Canal, Common, Philippa and Baronne) or roughly the location of the Roosevelt Hotel.
The fifth hospital was completed in 1833 and was designed to house 400 – 550 patients. The Daughters of Charity took over the administration of the hospital in 1834. A photo of this location from the 1921 resides in the Library Commons.
The sixth hospital (Big Charity) opened its doors in 1939 and closed in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005.
The seventh hospital, the Interim LSU Hospital, functioned from 2006 through 2015.
University Medical Center New Orleans, which opened on August 1st, is the 8th hospital in a direct line from that first hospital over 275 years ago.
Thanks to Circulating Now, NLM’s historical blog, I learned about the Story of Wendy Hill, created by the US Public Health Service in 1949.
Happy National Diabetes Month!
In honor of everyone using their time this summer to study for their board exams, this month’s “It Came From the Stacks” post is about a board review text. However, you might not want to use it for your boards as it was published 107 years ago.
Underwood & Gabell’s Aids to Dental Surgery is one volume in their “Student’s aids series.” The book is small and as the author states in his preface, “condense(s) into a concise form that department of the science of dental surgery which is capable of such treatment.” Underwood states that the books concentrates on matters which are likely to be included on examinations. “If the book smooths the path of any of the large body of dental students, with whose education and welfare my daily work has been and is so largely concerned, I shall feel that its object has been accomplished.”
Within this slim, 126 page book, the authors cover the breadth of dental science including bacteriology, hygiene, injuries and illnesses of the pulp, periosteum, mucous membrane, and jaws, extraction of teeth, and diseases arising from diseases of the teeth and gums.
LSUHSC-NO Libraries is lucky enough to hold one of only 12 copies of this work in the world. If you’d like to come take a look at this book or any of our more recent board review materials, please contact us or stop in to see us.
“Richard III, uncle of Elizabeth of York, great uncle of Henry VIII by Lisby in House of York, List of English monarchs, Richard III of England on Fotopedia – Images for Humanity ” by lisby1 is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Richard III reigned as King of England from 1483 until he was killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, thus closing the final chapter of the decades-long Wars of the Roses and ushering in the age of the Tudors. He is one of more infamous monarchs in British history, with opinions ranging from him as the hunchback usurper who had his nephews murdered as popularized by Shakespeare, to that of a trustworthy person who was simply caught up in the battle for control of the English crown.* Aside from his interest to scholars and drama enthusiasts, we are finding more and more about Richard III the man and his medical conditions as a result of the discovery and continuing analysis of his remains.
As a defeated monarch, Richard III was not treated to a royal burial after his death. Rumors persisted throughout the centuries as to the fate of his body, and, incredibly, remains discovered during an archaeological dig under a car park in the city of Leicester and subsequent DNA analysis confirmed that Richard III had been found.
One of the most recent discoveries in the ongoing analysis of the remains affects the portrayal of his being a hunchback as described in Shakespeare’s Richard III. An article published in the May 31, 2014, issue of Lancet by Appleby, et al, reports that Richard suffered from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, but not to such an extent to cause him to appear as the physically deformed monster of the play. According to the analysis, his mobility would not have been affected by the condition, and a clever tailor could even have compensated for any noticeable traces of it in his appearance.
For more information about Richard III, discovery of his remains, and the continuing analysis, please see:
*Full disclosure: the author of this post studied the pardons granted during the reign of Richard III and tends to take a sympathetic view of his legacy.
The National Library of Medicine houses the Michael Zwerdling Nursing Postcard Collection of nearly 2500 postcards, “published in the United States and internationally, depicting the nursing profession, the social history of nursing, the perception of nursing in various cultures, the role of military nurses, and other related themes.” The cards date from between 1893 and 2002. Approximately 600 of the postcards have been digitized by the Images from the History of Medicine section of the History of Medicine Division of NLM.
National Organizations of Nurses of the United States. New Orleans 1916 (http://ihm.nlm.nih.gov/luna/servlet/view/search?q=D05931)
While moving the dental books and journals we came across several books we’d like to tell everyone about in a series of posts in the continuing saga of “It Came From The Stacks” (insert foreboding music here…)
Our first book is a classic of dentistry from the Dental Library’s Old and Rare Collection. This over sized book, published in 1844, is by Paul B Goddard and is titled The Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology of the Human Teeth; with the most approved methods of treatment, including operations, and the method of making and setting artifical teeth; with thirty plates, also known as “Goddard on the Teeth”.
Goddard on the Teeth
When “Goodard on the Teeth” was published, it was described in a review in American Journal of Medical Sciences as a “practical treatment on the subject of the teeth”. It is praised by the reviewer: “… the work is got up in the handsomest manner. The plates are indeed the best specimens of lithography we have seen executed in this country.” This book contains some remarkable images head and neck anatomy, microscopic structure of teeth. dental equipment, a four step pictorial description of extracting teeth using a key, and various forms of artificial teeth and plates, among others.
This is a very interesting book that is exemplary of the beginnings of modern dentistry. If you would like to take a look at it in person, please contact the Dental Library and make arrangements to come see it. We’d love to share our old and rare treasures with you.
The AOL education series, What Remains has released a new video (less than 5 minutes) on the National Hansen’s Disease Center Museum in Carville, Louisiana. The video was filmed in December 2013.
The Libraries partnered with the Hansens’ Disease Museum in 2011 to digitize the patient newsletter, the Star to make it more widely available to researchers.
Page 164 of Andreas Vesalius: De corporis humani fabrica libri septem
We missed the 499th birthday?áof Andreas Vesalius who was born on December 31, 1514. 500th year?ácelebrations of the man and his accomplishments are in the works.
The LSUHSC Libraries is lucky enough to own a 1568 edition?áof his De humani corporis fabrica libri septem which is housed in the Isch?® Library Rare Books Room (and is available by appointment only). The first edition of this title is from 1543.
For more information, see this post from NLM’s Circulating Now blog.
Also, you can view the digitized?á1543 edition of De humani corporis fabrica libri septem?áat the NLM’s Historical Anatomies on the Web?ápage.
The “Binding Wounds, Pushing Boundaries: African Americans in Civil War Medicine” exhibit from the National Library of Medicine has moved to the Dental Library and will be available for viewing ?áuntil October 18.
The Library resources tie-ins are also displayed at the Dental Library. These items include exhibit brochures, circulating books, and excerpts from the Reserve and Reference collections.
Helpful links and educational resources provided by the National Library of Medicine in conjunction with the exhibit include?álesson plans?áfor upper elementary and high school classes, a?áhigher education module?áwith instructor resources,?áonline activities, and a?ábibliography?áof additional readings.
Be sure to stop in and get a taste of history!
Dental Library hours are Sunday: 11:30 am – 8:00 pm,?áMonday through Thursday: 8:00 am – 8:00 pm, and?áFriday: 8:00 am – 5:00 pm. The Library is closed on Saturdays.
Ever been hypnotized? While it may not make you cluck like a chicken, as an alternative therapy, medical hypnosis might help you manage and overcome a number of physical and mental conditions. In the fall of 1959, a few brave medical students were willing to put their bodies and minds at the mercy of LSU Medical School Professor of psychiatry Dr. Carl L. Davis for the purpose of studying the viability of hypnotherapy. Later, the students would be given the opportunity to reverse the stakes and hypnotize Dr. Davis in the spirit of fairness.
The American Medical Association officially backed medical hypnosis for wide use in 1958, though they cautioned against using the method as a form of entertainment and in cases of severe psychological illness. At that time, medical and dental practices used hypnotherapy as a form of anesthesia and in the management of pain. Other fields of medicine that have found use for hypnotherapeutic procedure include dermatology, gastroenterology, cardiology, obstetrics, oncology, post-surgery recovery, and even in the treatment of smoking addiction, eating disorders, and psychosomatic illness through age regression.
While many remain skeptical about the efficacy of hypnotherapy, it is true that more research and standardization of practice will provide insight into the relative benefits and risks of its usage. Dangers to the patient and the doctor are a considerable cause for concern. The mind, being a vast and complex entity, requires a delicate but firm touch. Hypnotism provides the therapist with the ability to wield the power of suggestion over the patient, and so puts the receptive patient in a vulnerable position. For this reason, the move toward more holistic treatment of the individual is vital in addressing his or her needs.
A 1959 Times-Picayune article relates the case of a man who developed asthma every time his mother-in-law would announce her intention to visitÔÇöÔÇ£This man just cannot understand why this would happen since he honestly believes he is fond of [her].ÔÇØ This is an example of a symptom that could possibly benefit from hypnotherapy (or else a nice, long vacation).
Accounts of hypnotism can turn grim, however. In another instance, a patient suffering from self-destructive tendencies developed paralysis in one of her fingers. She was referred to a hypnotist, who alleviated the symptom without addressing the underlying psychological turmoil. Upon release, the woman promptly employed her newly-flexible trigger finger in one final act of self-harm. This is an extreme example, but speaks to the necessity of treating the patient as a whole and of recognizing links between physical and mental manifestations of illness.
The prominent physicians mentioned in these newspaper articles were Professors of psychiatry at LSU Medical School: Dr. Carl L. Davis, Dr. Lucio Gatto, and Dr. Charles Watkins, who also served as the Head of the department. All of them make a few appearances in our Digital Collections as subject and even creator. Dr. Davis appears for his addresses on teen drinking and middle-age rebellion. Dr. Gatto appears for his study on compulsive borrowing. Dr. Watkins is the most prolific figure for his interest in the history of the U. S. Army 64th General Hospital, which has its own Collection, as well as for his medical-cultural mission to Central America, and his role in the care (and commitment) of former Governor Earl K. Long.
Now a far cry from its historic roots in mesmerism and animal magnetism, the current practice of medical hypnosis can be aligned more closely with deep meditation and positive thinking, the power of which is widely acknowledged by doctors and patients alike.
Glimpse of the Past is an ongoing project to promote the Louisiana Digital Library effort. This Month in History will present for your reading pleasure a closer look into a newspaper clipping of note from our Digital Collections and articles relating to the LSU Medical School.
Quack Cure Refuted!
Summer 2013 saw the launch of a new digital collection from the National Library of Medicine, Medical Movies on the Web. The first item added to this collection is the Reward of Courage which is a silent film produced by the American Society for the Control of Cancer (which would become the ?áAmerican Cancer Society). Read more about the film at Circulating Now, an informational website from the History of Medicine Division of NLM.
As of this moment, the collection only includes 4 titles, but one of them is directed by and stars Gene Kelly! The 1945 Combat Fatigue Irritability?áis just over 35 minutes long. Despite it’s matter of fact name, the NLM information?ásays it “is one of the best military productions of the war. It features a good script, score, editing, direction, and superb acting by an uncredited cast…”
Like every profession, dentistry has had its share of challenges and somewhat unappealing methods.
During the 18th and 19th centuries the reputation of dentistry was challenged by the demand for dental prosthesis and the practice of recycling teeth became popular. It hit its highest level of prominence after the Battle at Waterloo.
When artificial materials (like mineral teeth or dentures carved out of ivory or bone) proved to be ineffective for chewing and even talking, people would use teeth extracted from animals, executed criminals and unearthed bodies for dentures.
One of the most well-known events that provided teeth for functional dentures was the Battle of Waterloo which took place on June 18, 1815. Armies lead by Napoleon and the Duke of Wellington fought against each other. After the battle was done, scavengers robbed the dead soldiers of all commodities, including their teeth.
Dentist would buy those teeth to create dentures. The dentures that were made with the teeth of the soldiers that died in the Battle of Waterloo came to be known as ÔÇ£Waterloo teethÔÇØ.
Photo Credit:Phisick Medical Antiques
Obtaining human teeth was frequently associated with a grotesque activity known as resurrectionism (or grave robbing).
?áResurrectionist would sometimes even kill beggars, drifters and prostitutes to get paid for providing corpses to medical schools for dissection. And when a body would be too decomposed to be sold to the medical schools they would sell the teeth.
Although grave robbers may have been heartless, the ingenuity and effort of the dentist during that era is none short of fascinating.
“A woman’s first responsibility is to make an effort to do what she wants to do.” —sage advice?áfrom?áDr. Winston Weese, Emeritus Associate Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at LSU Medical School
You never know what you will chance upon when you browse the LibraryÔÇÖs Newspaper Clippings Collection. Trolling for this monthÔÇÖs topic took me on a journey through various strange perspectives on womenÔÇÖs health.
In 1959, convention speakers discussed ÔÇ£gyno-psychiatry,ÔÇØ ÔÇ£a very basic and superficial type of psychiatry [that] is primarily reassurance. Sometimes a woman is infertile because she believes her husband does not love her. Or vice versa. What we are trying to do today is to make the infertile woman realize that help is possible: that they donÔÇÖt have to just grin and bear it.ÔÇØ One article from 1961 blames men for womenÔÇÖs anxieties: ÔÇ£The American man isnÔÇÖt asserting his male dominance.ÔÇØ The piece is full of quotable gems like, ÔÇ£The wise woman of course, vocally credits her husband with leadership even when he does not have itÔÇØ and ÔÇ£boosts her husbandÔÇÖs ego even though she may be far superior to him in intelligence.ÔÇØ
Some answered the call for by entering the medical field.?áIn 1931, The Southern Medical Association fielded questions about the rise of women as doctors. At the time, women doctors still combated some suppositions about their patients: ÔÇ£Why should they be all women?ÔÇØ and about their personhood with ÔÇ£frequent assertions that such professions as social work and medicine destroy many of the gentler attributes of the feminine nature.ÔÇØ One of the doctors interviewed was the remarkable Dr. Moss of New Orleans, who said, ÔÇ£ThatÔÇÖs a lot of foolishness on the part of people who donÔÇÖt know us.ÔÇØ
Dr. Emma Sadler Moss rejected a teaching career because she was ÔÇ£not gentle enoughÔÇØ and stood as is a?áshining example?áof a woman doing what she wants. She brushed aside the hackneyed image of the young, gentle Southern woman, preferring the allure of the medical profession, where she excelled. After a stint as a medical technologist, Dr. Moss studied for her M. D., which she earned in 1935 from LSU. From there, she earned the title of Director of Pathology at Charity Hospital, clinical professor of pathology at LSU Medical School, and President of the American Society of Clinical Pathology (notably, the first woman President of the society).
Dr. MossÔÇÖ commitment to these institutions lasted for over thirty years until her death in 1970. She received numerous awards for her work in pathology including being recognized as the 1954 Medical Woman of the Year and as one of ÔÇ£The Six Most Successful Women of 1955.ÔÇØ The Library owns two editions of her lauded text, An Atlas of Medical Mycology, which she co-authored with Dr. Albert Louis McQuown. A full listing of her contributions to LSU Medical School and Charity Hospital can be viewed in A History of LSU School of Medicine New Orleans.
Glimpse of the Past is an ongoing project to promote the?áLouisiana Digital Library effort. This Month in History will present for your reading pleasure a closer look into a newspaper clipping of note from our Digital Collections and articles relating to the LSU Medical School.
Retired faculty member Rowena Spencer is back in the American Medical Student Association blog, On Call, on the occasion of her 91st birthday which will be July 3rd.
We learned from childhood that if you give a mouse a cookie heÔÇÖs going to want a glass of milk. It is lesser known, however, whether an increase in milk consumption in the general rodent population is directly caused by rampant cookie consumption among mice. Correlation does not necessarily indicate causation.?á A similar logical fallacy comes from one member of the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster who claims that there exists ÔÇ£a statistically significant inverse relationship between pirates and global temperature;ÔÇØ therefore, according to him, more piracy will decrease global temperature and the number of natural disasters. These examples, though silly, illustrate the importance of scientific research in drawing causation in an uncontrolled environment and in distinguishing between folklore, coincidence, and the truth.
One such truth-seeking project involves public health and is the source of long-standing controversyÔÇöthe issue: community water fluoridation (CWF). Beginning in 1954 in New Orleans, a committee of health professionals convened to address CWF. The committee consisted of several area doctors including LSU Medical CenterÔÇÖs Dr. Russell Holman, who served as Professor and Head of the Pathology Department from 1946 until his death in 1960. An article from the New Orleans Item in 1955 describes the committee as divided and unsure with the exception of Dr. Holman, who planted his support firmly on the side of fluoridation. A final decision was made in 1957 to veto CWF due to a need for further study.
Articles within the past few years on nola.com address CWF in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina as being a lack of supply. Now it appears that fluoride has been returned to our water. A 2010 Sewage and Water Board of New Orleans report defines fluoridation as a way ÔÇ£to prevent tooth decay.ÔÇØ Later in the same report, fluoride is defined as a ÔÇ£contaminantÔÇØ: its presence on average .8ppm on the East Bank and .81ppm on the West Bank. Likely sources are listed as ÔÇ£erosion of natural deposits; water additive which promotes strong teeth; discharge from fertilizer and aluminum factories.ÔÇØ
Though the addition of fluoride to the nation’s drinking water has become common practice, the matter of its efficacy is still unresolved. In weighing the risks and benefits of CWF, the exact nature of correlation between improvements and harm to the publicÔÇÖs dental health remains unclear. Proponents of community health attempt to account for socioeconomic factors, access to dental care, pyorrhea and periodontal concerns in children and adults, as well as fluorosis, a cosmetic issue caused by over-fluoridation.
The CDC has called water fluoridation ÔÇ£one of the 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century,ÔÇØ and in 2010, the center’s statistics show the percentage of the U.S. population receiving fluoridated water at 66.2%. Perhaps we ought to take a cue from the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster: take to sea, forget dental care, and go marauding!
Glimpse of the Past is an ongoing project to promote the Louisiana Digital Library effort. This Month in History will present for your reading pleasure a closer look into a newspaper clipping of note from our Digital Collections and articles relating to the LSU Medical School.?á