· Provides information on bloodborne pathogens (BBP), including types of BBPs, transmission routes, preventative strategies, and procedures in the event of exposure.
· Meets Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Louisiana Office of Risk Management (ORM) requirements
· All personnel who have the potential for exposure to BBPs must complete training.
· Epidemiology and Symptoms
· Modes of Transmission Methods of Compliance
· Waste Disposal and Hazard Communication
· Spill Response
· Exposure Incident
· Post Exposure Procedures
· Employees who may encounter blood or body fluid, but not as part of their regular job duties, are considered as “low risk” and must complete this training as required by OSHA and ORM.
· Low risk employees shall have refresher training at least once every five years.
· Click here to view the OSHA standard.
· Bloodborne Pathogens: pathogenic microorganisms present in human blood and other body fluids that can cause disease in humans, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
· Occupational Exposure: reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or OPIM that may result from the performance of the employee’s duties.
· Other Potentially Infectious Materials (OPIM): materials other than human blood that can contain bloodborne pathogens and be potentially infectious.
Epidemiology and Symptoms
Common BBP Diseases
· AIDS is the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a serious illness that harms the body's ability to fight infection, and is caused by the HIV virus. Though infected individuals may not initially have symptoms of HIV infection, it may still be possible for them to spread disease.
· Hepatitis B is an infectious illness caused by HBV which causes inflammation of the liver, liver infection, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Hepatitis B is far more common than HIV and is present in very high concentrations in the blood of infected persons. A vaccination is available for Hepatitis B.
· Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting the liver. Symptoms for both HBV and HCV include flu-like illness, jaundice, dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, abdominal and joint point, and rash. No vaccine is currently available for Hepatitis C.
Modes of BBP Transmission
· It is important to consider the potential for BBPs in certain work areas, including:
° Medical Clinics
° Biological Waste Containers (i.e., bioboxes, sharps containers)
° Personnel involved in accidental cuts, scrapes, falls, and other injuries.
· Transmission can be via direct and indirect contact.
· Transmission can occur through:
° Accidental punctures from sharp objects (i.e., needles, broken glass, or other contaminated sharps).
° Contact between broken or damaged skin and infected body fluids (e.g., open sores, cuts, abrasions, acne, or any sort of damaged or broken skin such as blisters).
° Exposure to mucous membranes, eyes, nose, or mouth.
· BBPs are not known to be transmitted across intact skin.
Methods of Compliance
· The following methods are used by personnel working with BBPs to minimize exposure:
° The LSUHSC Exposure Control Plan (ECP), available here, contains procedures and practices designed to eliminate or minimize occupational exposure to BBPs.
° Application of universal precautions which is the practice of treating all blood and OPIM as if they are contaminated or infectious.
° Engineering controls are physical controls used to isolate or remove BBP hazards from the workplace.
° Work practice controls are modifications of work procedures to reduce the likelihood of exposure to blood or OPIM.
° Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is worn by personnel to protect from BBP exposure.
Waste Disposal and Hazard Communication
· Do not handle blood, OPIM or any biological materials without proper training.
· As working knowledge, bioboxes with red biohazard liners are used to dispose of biohazardous waste. Sharps containers are used to dispose of all contaminated sharps (i.e., needles, scalpels).
· All equipment and containers used to store, transport, or ship blood, OPIM or any biological materials must have a label with the word “biohazard” and the biohazard symbol.
· Labels and signs shall be fluorescent orange or orange-red with lettering and symbols in a contrasting color.
· The most likely incident you may contact involving blood or OPIM would be from abrasion, cut, laceration, or scrape injuries.
· Should a incident or spill occur involving blood or OPIM, contact University Police immediately and notify EH&S to assist in the clean-up.
· Secure the area, keeping all personnel clear of spill.
· Stand by during spill response and cleanup activity to provide information and assistance.
· An exposure incident is contact with blood or OPIM via eye, mouth, other mucous membrane; non-intact skin; or piercing/cutting of skin.
· In the event of an exposure incident, the exposed person should wash the exposed area thoroughly with soap and running water. Use non-abrasive, antibacterial soap, if possible. If blood or OPIM are splashed in the eye or mucous membrane, flush the affected area with running water for at least 15 minutes.
· It is essential to ensure the proper medical evaluation and follow up for the exposed individual.
· Report the exposure incident to immediate supervisor.
· Document the exposure incident, including the route of exposure and the circumstances under which the exposure incident occurred.
· If it is unknown whether the source individual has HIV, HCV, or HBV, have the source patient tested. First, obtain source patient consent.
Employee Special Procedures
· Supervisors are responsible for reporting incidents and following procedures to ensure proper testing and medical treatment is provided.
· We are in the process of finalizing arrangements for a post-exposure serological testing provider.
· For incidents that occur at an off-campus location, the employee should be referred to the institutional infection control office (usually, their employee health service) for post-exposure assistance.
Student Special Procedures
· For student incidents that occur at an off-campus location, the student should be referred to the institutional infection control office (usually, their employee health service). For on-site occurrences, refer the student to 2820 Napoleon Ave., New Orleans, LA (504-412-1100). The CDC and OSHA guidelines for risk exposure will be followed and appropriate reporting provided.
· Follow up lab studies for all students should be handled through LSUHSC Student Health.
· During hours when the Student Health Clinic is not open, students should seek emergency care at the Fast Track emergency room at the University Hospital.
· Counseling for employees is available through the Campus Assistance Program (568-8888) at no cost for initial counseling. Contact the Office of Human Resource Management for more information.
· Counseling for students is available through Student Health’s Mental Health Counselors or the Campus Assistance Program.