Campus Assistance Program

Supervisory Training for a Drug-Free Workplace/Campus and Fitness for Duty

CM-23, CM-37 and CM-38

Revised: September 1, 2017


The role of the supervisor is traditionally a difficult one. You must fulfill various responsibilities to your employees and to LSUHSC-NO. As a supervisor, you have the day-to-day responsibility for the conduct, behaviors, actions and activities that occur in the workplace. Therefore, you play a critical role in the enforcement of the policies at LSUHSC-NO.

Personal problems can impact an employee’s job performance from time to time. When an employee begins to show a consistent pattern of problematic behavior, or arrives to work impaired, it is important to know what to do and where to turn for assistance.

This training has been developed to assist managers and supervisors of the substance abuse policy and procedures, maintaining a drug-free workplace and identifying individuals who are struggling with challenges. An alcohol or drug problem can quickly spiral out of control. Someone who may seem like a reliable employee when hired can soon become unreliable, showing up late to work or not focusing on his duties. Recognizing the signs of possible alcohol or drug abuse and addressing these problems early can assist the individual in returning to a productive employee.

Training Objectives

At the end of this training, you should be able to identify the following:

What is a Drug-Free Workplace (DFWP)?

It is a site where all employees and students adhere to a program of policies and activities designed to provide a safe workplace, discourage alcohol and drug abuse and encourage treatment, recovery and the return to work of those employees with such abuse problems.

The intent of the program is to educate adults on the problems relating to substance abuse. The one place where there can be mandated adult education is the workplace. This empowers the individual and the family, resulting in stronger communities.

The goal of LSU DFWP policy is to protect the safety of employees, students, and patients who come to our worksite.

All faculty, staff, residents, students and contractual employees of LSUHSC-NO whether paid, unpaid, or gratis is required to follow this policy.

Drug Testing for a Drug Free Workplace Includes:

Drug/Alcohol Testing Methods

Enzyme Multiplied Immuno-assay Technique (EMIT) is used for preliminary or initial screening on urine drug tests. A positive EMIT Test result will undergo Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) for confirmation. This combination of tests is sensitive, specific, and can identify all types of drugs in any body fluid.

The devices used for breath alcohol testing measure alcohol concentration in your breath. Breath alcohol testing is done for reasonable suspicion/for cause, periodic monitoring/aftercare, post-accident, and random. Trained Breath Alcohol Technicians conduct the breath tests.

All alcohol breath tests are subject to a confirmation test on an evidential breath test device according to Department of Transportation regulations when the result of the screening test is 0.020 or greater.

Post-Job Offer Drug Testing

Following a full-time employment offer (post-job offer) and prior to becoming an active employee, the successful candidate will be required to undergo post-job offer testing for the presence of drugs. The candidate must test free of drugs as a condition of hiring.

Before any test results are reported to the appropriate Administrative Body or their designee, a Medical Review Officer (MRO) will verify the drug test results. The employee will not be permitted to begin employment until the MRO has verified the drug test results. The MRO will notify a prospective employee of a confirmed positive drug test and shall offer the individual the opportunity to challenge the drug test at his or her own expense.

Any employee who has multiple periods of appointment within a one-year time period will be required to undergo drug testing before the first period of appointment. At the option of LSUHSC-NO, the employee may be required to undergo drug testing at the beginning of each new appointment.

Drug testing will also be required of an employee prior to promotion or transfer to a safety sensitive position or to a higher safety sensitive or security sensitive position.

A prospective employee undergoing post-job offer drug testing and who declines to consent to testing or who receives a confirmed positive drug test result shall have the conditional offer of employment withdrawn and shall be subject to disqualification from employment consideration for a period of one year from the date of the drug test.

The LSUHSC-NO Drug Testing Office will notify the appropriate administrative body when a post-job offer candidate is “cleared for hire.” The candidate should not begin work until clearance is provided through the Drug Testing Office.

Drug Testing Procedures for Pre-Employment Handbook

Random Testing

Any individual whose principle responsibility is to operate public vehicles, maintain public vehicles, or supervise any public employee who drives or maintains public vehicles will be subject to a program of random alcohol and drug testing.

Individuals who hold safety or security sensitive jobs shall be subject to random alcohol and drug testing.

Individuals will have an equal chance of being chosen, regardless of whether they have been previously tested.

Once an individual is notified they have been chosen for random testing, they must report to the Drug Testing Office within two hours of notification.

Failure to report within two hours of notification is cause for termination.

Contact the LSUHSC-NO Drug Testing Office if you have an employee who you believe should be included in the random safety sensitive list by phone at 504-568-8888.

Reasonable Suspicion / For Cause Testing and Post Accident

LSUHSC-NO requires any individual who observes an LSUHSC-NO affiliated individual whose behavior appears impaired or unsafe due to the possible use/abuse of alcohol or drugs to report the observations to their supervisor immediately. An individual whose behavior appears impaired or unsafe while at work/school is required to immediately submit to alcohol and drug testing.

The phrase "While at Work/School" includes all times when an individual is on LSUHSC-NO property, on-call, supposed to be working, operating LSUHSC-NO's vehicles, or on official LSUHSC-NO business either on-site or off-site.

LSUHSC-NO may require an individual who is involved in an accident (job/school related) while at work/school to immediately submit to alcohol and drug testing. An individual may be tested when one or more of the following conditions occur and there is individualized suspicion that the individual may be under the influence of alcohol or drugs:

Supervisors who observe or receive any information about an individual's impairment or unsafe conditions from alcohol or drugs or who have an individual involved in an accident for which testing is appropriate must:

Why Post-Accident Drug Testing is Important

Most Importantly, LSUHSC-NO takes its drug-free workplace seriously. All employees who are entitled to assert a claim under the workers’ compensation laws of Louisiana are subject to and shall cooperate in post-accident drug testing, when testing is appropriate (it's important for supervisors to be aware of this and know the signs of possible workplace impairment). Employees who drink while on the job and use drugs:

Post-Accident Drug Testing

Any employee involved in an accident that occurs during the course and scope of employment shall be required to submit to drug and/or alcohol testing:

Periodic Monitoring

LSUHSC-NO requires individuals who have tested positive for alcohol or drugs or been diagnosed with an alcohol or drug abuse/dependency problem and who sign a Continuation of Employment/Enrollment Contract to submit to regular or irregular, unannounced or announced alcohol and drug test(s).

Substance Abuse


A state in which a person's normal capacity to act or reason is inhibited by alcohol or drugs.

The burden of proof is on the employer.


Alcohol is the most abused drug in society today. It is a depressant and affects vision, judgment, reaction time, memory, and most important, public safety. Blatant drunkenness is easy to detect on sight, and so it is assumed that most employees would not show up for work in this condition. However, it is possible for one’s state of impairment to be less outwardly visible, thereby giving a person a false sense of security in feeling that he/she can function while only a “little high” or with a “small buzz”. In either case, the resulting effect can be fatal.

Two specific kinds of drinking behavior significantly contribute to the level of work-performance problems: drinking right before or during working hours (including drinking at lunch and at company functions), and heavy drinking the night before that causes hangovers during work the next day.

It isn’t just “alcoholics” who can generate problems in the workplace. Research has shown that the majority of alcohol-related work-performance problems are associated with non dependent drinkers who may occasionally drink too much -- not exclusively by alcohol-dependent employees.

Illicit Drugs

Illicit or illegal drugs can be highly addictive and as stated before can cause serious health problems. Illicit drugs are those that are illegal to make, sell or use and include drugs such as: Marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines/methamphetamines, heroin, and hallucinogens. They all impair someone’s ability to perform safely and will lead to serious problems in the workplace, professionally and personally for that individual if left untreated. Here are some signs or behaviors to look for:


Marijuana (cannabis) is the most commonly used illicit substance. National Institute on Drug Abuse reports that this drug impairs short-term memory and learning, the ability to focus, and coordination. It also increases heart rate, can harm the lungs, and may increase the risk of psychosis in vulnerable people. Research suggests that when regular marijuana use begins in the teen years, addiction is more likely: 1 in 6 users, compared to 1 in 9 among adults. In addition, recent research suggests that heavy cannabis use that starts in the teen years is associated with declines in IQ scores in adulthood.


Cocaine is attractive as a recreational substance due to the perceived positive effects on mood, motivation, and energy. Someone abusing cocaine may smoke, snort, or take it intravenously. Signs include: Impaired thinking, confused, anxious, depressed, short tempered, panic attacks, suspiciousness, diluted pupils, sleeplessness, loss of appetite, irritability, talkative, hallucinations and paranoia.


Methamphetamine (also called meth, crystal, chalk, and ice, among other terms) is an extremely addictive stimulant drug that is chemically similar to amphetamine. It takes the form of a white, odorless, bitter-tasting crystalline powder. People who use methamphetamine may experience anxiety, confusion, insomnia, and mood disturbances and display violent behavior. They may also show symptoms of psychosis, such as paranoia, visual and auditory hallucinations, and delusions (for example, the sensation of insects crawling under the skin).


Heroin is a substance that is both illegal and extremely addictive. The substance derives from opium from the poppy plant before it is refined to morphine, then further chemically modified to become heroin. Despite its deserved negative reputation for its high risks, heroin continues to be a commonly abused drug in the US. Signs include: A fast acting opiate, dry mouth, flushed skin, pupils will be constricted, may node off suddenly, thinking is unclear, itching, nausea / vomiting,


Hallucinogens are drugs that alter the user’s thinking processes and perception in a manner that leads to significant distortions of reality. Signs include: distorted sense of sight, hearing, touch, diluted pupils, anxiety or paranoia, mood swings and irrational behavior.

Prescription Medications

Prescription medications and some over-the-counter medications are increasingly being abused (used in ways other than intended or without a prescription). This practice can lead to addiction, and in some cases, overdose.

Opioids are usually prescribed for pain relief. Commonly prescribed opioids include hydrocodone (e.g., Vicodin®), oxycodone (e.g., OxyContin®), morphine, fentanyl, and codeine. In the United States, more people now die from opioid painkiller overdoses than from heroin and cocaine combined.

Stimulants: Methylphenidate (Ritalin®, Concerta®, Focalin®, and Metadate®) and amphetamines (Adderall®, Dexedrine®) are stimulants commonly prescribed for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Depressants are usually prescribed to promote sleep or to reduce anxiety. As measured by national surveys, depressants are often categorized as sedatives or tranquilizers. Sedatives primarily include barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbitol) but also include sleep medications such as Ambien® and Lunesta®. Tranquilizers primarily include benzodiazepines such as Valium® and Xanax®, but also include muscle relaxants and other anti-anxiety medications.

Job Performance Problems associated with Alcohol and/or Drug Use Include:

Workplace Behavior associated with Alcohol and/or Drug Use

Recognize the Problem

Detecting the signs of substance abuse in the workplace can be difficult since many of the early warning signs of a drug or alcohol problem overlap with the day to day job performance issues seen by a manager;

When you notice a pattern has developed with negative change in workplace behavior, performance and appearance its time to act;

Keep in mind that any of these signs can point to problems other than substance abuse;

Consult with CAP when these behaviors are observed in the workplace for guidance. A referral based on unsafe behaviors observed in the workplace is appropriate to assist your employee.

When making an administrative referral to CAP and/or drug testing, the referral is made based on observed workplace behavior. Remember, it is not your job to figure out the cause of the problem. Your job is to observe employee behaviors and determine the effects of those behaviors on job performance.

CAP will then identify if a substance abuse, behavioral health or medical condition is leading to the behaviors observed in the workplace while complying with the LSUHSC-NO fitness for duty and substance abuse policies

How to Make an Administrative Referral For Drug Testing/Fitness for Duty

  1. Supervisors who observe or receive any information about an individual’s impairment or unsafe conditions from alcohol or drugs must:
  2. The supervisor will then escort the individual to the Campus Assistance Program and Drug Testing Office;
  3. An individual who is referred for alcohol and/or drug testing will be sent home and suspended with pay (if applicable) pending the test results;
  4. An individual who appears to be impaired will be offered assistance and discouraged from driving. If an individual refuses assistance, the LSUHSC-NO Police will be notified to escort the individual off LSUHSC-NO premises;
  5. Refusal to submit to a requested alcohol/drug test will result in notification of the appropriate Administrative Body or designee;
  6. Should an individual refuse to be tested, the supervisor in charge will suspend the individual without pay (if applicable) and ensure the individual leaves the area. The supervisor should contact LSUHSC-NO Police if necessary;
  7. The supervisor should have a witness, if possible, to observe the individual’s behaviors or physical condition;
  8. The individual should be told that their refusal to submit to the alcohol/drug test is a terminable offense;
  9. Positive alcohol tests will be confirmed with a second alcohol confirmation test at the time of initial testing by the Breath Alcohol Technician (BAT). A positive alcohol test will result in immediate notification (at the time of testing) to the appropriate Administrative Body or their designee;
  10. Positive Alcohol Test includes an alcohol concentration of 0.020 g/100ml or greater. An alcohol concentration between 0.020 and 0.039 g/100ml will result in the individual being temporarily removed from work/school until their breath alcohol concentration is less than 0.020 g/100ml. An alcohol concentration of 0.040 g/100ml or greater will result in disciplinary sanctions imposed by the appropriate Administrative Body or their designee. A person with an alcohol concentration of 0.040 g/100ml or greater is considered to be “under the influence” of alcohol. Alcohol will be tested for in breath, urine, or in blood as necessary.
  11. Before any drug test results are reported to the Administrative Body or their designee, the MRO (Medical Review Officer) will verify the drug test results. The individual will be informed of the opportunity to challenge the drug test results at their own expense;
  12. Positive Drug Test are defined as testing positive for a specific drug at a specific ng/ml level. A drug test will be performed on urine, blood, or hair as necessary.
  13. All positive alcohol and drug tests results will be forwarded to the appropriate Administrative Body or their designee.
  14. If the results are positive, corrective action up to and including termination/suspension will be initiated.
  15. The individual may be allowed to continue their employment/enrollment if they agree to work with the Campus Assistance Program for assessment, Fitness for Duty as well as enroll in the drug testing monitoring program as a condition of continued employment/enrollment.
  16. The LSUHSC Continuation of Employment/Enrollment contract will be required.
  17. A subsequent positive alcohol/drug test result or refusal to test will be grounds for termination/suspension of individuals who are undergoing periodic monitoring or aftercare testing.

Supervisor Tips

Scenario 1


John is a 35 year old researcher who has worked for you at LSUHSC – NO for 7 years. He has been a reliable employee and has never had any problems in the workplace. Over the past several weeks, John has been late 4 times, all on Mondays, and on some days has taken extended breaks throughout the day. You’ve also heard that John was experiencing some financial difficulties. Today (Monday), John’s wife called to inform you that John had car problems and would be late. You asked to speak with John and was told he is not available. When John arrived 2 hours later, you asked him to meet you in your office to discuss his recent pattern of tardiness. While meeting with him, you detect a faint odor of alcohol on his breath. You also noticed that John’s eyes were blood shot, he was sweating, his hair was not combed, he was unshaven, and he looked as if he didn’t sleep the night before.

Should you make an administrative referral to CAP for John?

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How do you address this concern with John? What do you discuss with him?

As a supervisor, you will be extremely familiar with an employee’s work performance and habits. Therefore, you will (and should) be cognizant of, and able to, identify drastic changes in their persona. Because of John’s recent change in behavior, productivity, appearance and now the smell of alcohol, a referral to the Campus Assistance Program and Drug Testing Program is required.

Follow these step by step instructions when making an administrative referral for drug testing and fitness for duty. This form is also found on the Campus Assistance Programs website.

Scenario 2


Matt is a 2nd year student who is an overachiever and has always been an honor student. He’s had no significant academic problems; however, he hasn’t been getting the grades he’s used to getting in the past. Rumor has it that Matt is known as a “partier” and gets intoxicated during the after test parties. He has never experienced negative consequences such as DWIs or arrests regarding his alcohol use but other students have stated he experiences some significant hangovers. He begins talking more about how much time he puts into studying and not seeing the results he expects. He begins to show signs of irritability, anger, nervousness and states that he has been having a hard time falling asleep. One afternoon, he storms out of a test displaying erratic patterns. When confronted by the instructor about his impulsive behavior, Matt admits that over the last few weeks he has been taking Adderall that had not been prescribed to him.

Should Matt be referred to CAP?

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What the students are reporting about Matt’s alcohol use is concerning. With Matt’s recent behavior and now with his report of taking Adderall that is not prescribed to him, there are concerns of personal problems impacting his academic performance. Adderall abuse occurs in several ways including taking someone else’s medication and taking the drug for reasons other than a medical need, such as to stay awake for long periods of time.

In situations like this, an administrative referral for fitness for duty and drug testing is necessary.

Scenario 3

Cart of Chemicals

An employee is in the process of placing a five gallon container of hazardous waste onto a cart for transport. Because the cart is already crowded with containers, the employee places the container such that part of the container hangs over the side of the cart. As the employee pushes the cart out of the room, that container hits the door jamb and falls off of the cart. Since the top of the container was not properly secured, its contents are spilled onto the floor. As the supervisor, you notice a strong alcohol like odor on the employee as well as notice behavior that is inconsistent with usual behaviors, blood shot eyes and disheveled appearance.

Should this employee be referred to CAP for drug testing?

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Supervisors who observe or receive any information about an individual's impairment or unsafe conditions from alcohol or drugs or who have an individual involved in an accident for which testing is appropriate must:

When talking With An Employee About Unsafe/Impaired Behaviors


Any information related to participation in Drug Testing or CAP shall be kept strictly confidential.

Supervisors should not share or discuss an employee’s or student’s participation in CAP or Drug Testing with anyone other than the direct supervisors and administrators who need to know.

Information regarding the individual’s cooperation, compliance, fitness for duty, drug test results, along with any relevant information regarding the behaviors that led to the administrative referral to CAP may be released to:

Any correspondence the supervisor receives from CAP and Drug Testing must be kept in a separate confidential file within the supervisor’s office.

The Administrative Referral Form and the Continuation of Employment/Enrollment Contract are the only documents that must be placed within the employment / student records.

Policies and Forms

Additional Resources

Listed here are resources available to employees, students, residents and faculty that can either provide substance abuse treatment or can assist individuals in finding treatment for their substance use problem.

Getting Help

If you have any questions, please contact:

Campus Assistance Program

In Person: 1542 Tulane Avenue, Office 866
Phone: 504-568-8888

Office of Compliance Programs

In Person: RCB, Suite 807
Phone: 504-568-5135